WuZhi Shan, the highest mountain in Hainan, is reputed as the “Roof of Hainan”, which is also the symbol and landmark of Hainan. Located in the central part of Hainan Island, the mountain is named after its five ranging peaks that resemble the five fingers of a palm, with the second peak reaching 1,867 meters tall, the highest of its kind in Hainan. The mountain extends more than 40 kilometers in north-south direction and spans 30 kilometers wide from east to west.
On August 11, 2020, the Hainan Provincial Commission Office of Public Sectors Reform approved the establishment of WuZhi Shan Branch of the Management Office of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park on the basis of former WuZhi Shan National Nature Reserve Administration and Hainan Tongshi Forest Farm. The WuZhi Shan area (109°32'47″E-109°49'31″E, 18°42'35″N-18°59'42″N) covers Wuzhishan City (411.58 km², 77.06% of the total area) and Qiongzhong County (122.50 km², 22.94%) in central Hainan. Of the total, the general control area occupies 288.25 km² (54%), while the core protected area takes up 245.83 km² (46%). If calculated by the ownership of forest land, the state-owned forest makes up 67.7% of the total area (358.3 km²) while the collective forest land takes the remaining 32.3% (171 km²)
II. Typical landscape and features
The WuZhi Shan area is established to protect the tropical rainforest ecosystem as well as rare or endangered wild animals and plants and their habitats. It has a high relative topography, complete vertical zonal vegetation types, species-rich tropical vegetation and rainforest communities. This biodiverse, well-protected area is an integral part of Hainan rainforest system and plays a significant value in the conservation of biodiversity in China and globally. It is also the source of major rivers in Hainan, including Changhua River and Wanquan River. It is designated as one of the core areas of ecological protection and water and soil conservation in the ecological blueprint of Hainan Comprehensive Planning (2015-2030). In the National Ecological Function Zoning of China, the area is listed as a functional area for biodiversity protection and water conservation in central Hainan Province.
Ⅲ. Geological landform
Granite, mixed granite and sub-volcanic rocks are most commonly found in the WuZhi Shan area. High mountains, lower hills and terraces descend from the middle of the reserve to its edges.
Ⅳ . Natural resources
Climate: The WuZhi Shan area has a tropical rainforest climate, with the average annual temperature ranging from 20.5℃ to 23.4℃. The annual duration of sunlight in the area is between 1,600 and 2,000 hours. The annual rainfall stands at 2,444 mm. Each year, the amount of evaporation is kept to 700 mm on average, the lowest level across the island. Yet the annual average relative humidity is about 90%, making the region one of the most humid areas in China.
Soil: The soil parent rocks of the WuZhi Shan area are mainly formed by igneous rocks, predominantly granite, with a small amount of quartzite and amphibolite. The types of soil vary from mountain yellow soil to mountain lateritic red soil and partly mountain scrubby-meadow soil.
Hydrology: WuZhi Shan is the source and watershed of Wanquan River and Changhua River in Hainan. The annual runoff depth of the area is 1,400 mm on average, which is mainly supplied by rain water. The runoff in flood season (May-October) accounts for more than 80% of the annual runoff.
Plant resources: WuZhi Shan acts as the dividing line of heat between the northern and southern Hainan, as well as the watershed between the east and the west of the island, thus forming a microclimate with species richness. The vegetation stretches from lower places at the elevation of 160 meters to areas as high as 1,867 meters. There are 2,146 species of wild vascular plants in the WuZhi Shan area, among which 6 species are under the county's first-class protection (Hopea hainanensis, Cycas, Cycas taiwaniana, Cycas hainanensis, Paphiopedilum appletonianum, and Cymbidium insigne ), 85 species are under state second-class protection, and 14 protected at the provincial level. In addition, 284 species of plants are endemic to Hainan, such as Cephalotaxus hainanensis, Michelia shiluensis, Alseodaphne rugosa, Heritiera parvifolia, Nephelium topengii and Madhuca hainanensis.
Animal resources: The WuZhi Shan area is recorded to shelter 283 species of birds, 67 species of fish and more than 1,700 species of insects. Of the total, 9 species of wild animals are listed in the national first-class protection, i.e., water monitor, Hainan partridge, Hainan peacock-pheasant, clouded leopard, rasse, zibet, pangolin, Gorsachius magnificus, and Teinopalpus aureus, China's only butterfly species protected at the country's first level. About 50 animal species have been listed as second-class protected animals in China. Another 39 species are listed in CITES, 9 species in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and 43 species in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals.
National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest
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Address: Forestry Department of Hainan Province, No.80, Haifu Road, Meilan District, Haikou, Hainan
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