Hainan partridge (Arborophila ardens), is a species within the family Phasianidae (Galliformes, Aves).
It is an endemic species of Hainan, and a Class I national protected animal. It is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
The Hainan partridge is about 23-30 cm in length and weighs 200-260 grams. It is thought to have beautiful feather colors in the genus Arborophila, with its lore, forehead, eyebrow, cheeks, head, chin and throat all black and blended well. Its feathers along the ears are white, while most of the neck is light orange red with dark spots; above the black eyebrow are scattered with white spots, forming a white stripe extending to the hind neck. The upper part of its body is olive brown with black horizontal spots and the wings are tinged with chestnut brown. The breast is covered with orange-red silky feathers in the upper part and gray ones in the lower part, slightly tinged with brown white. One can notice the grayish feathers of its flanks\ with white lines on the upper vane. The feathers of the abdomen are brown and white. Female and male Hainan partridges look alike, and the only difference is that females have silky breast with an orange and red tinge, and the feathers of the abdomen are light red. This species has black mouth and reddish brown legs and claws. Its tail is shorter, less than half the length of the wings. The tarsometatarsus joints are bare and protruded.
Hainan partridges live in low land and hilly areas, especially in pristine mountain rainforest, ravine rainforest and evergreen forests around 700-900 meters above sea level.
Hainan partridges often gather in pairs or in small groups of 4-5 individuals. They are in the size of pheasants and chirp to interact with one another. Places such as the bottom of trench, the foot of slope or where fallen leaves pile up are perfect for foraging. This bird chiefly feeds on leaves, shoots and seeds of shrubs and herbs, as well as insects and snails. Their natural predators are weasels and some raptors. Deforestation of natural forests and overhunting pose a major threat to the survival of Hainan partridges.
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